A mediator helps the parties reach a resolution by facilitating communication, promoting understanding, assisting them in identifying and exploring issues, interests and possible bases for agreement, and in some matters, helping parties evaluate the likely outcome in court or arbitration if they cannot reach settlement through mediation. 

A mediator should be satisfied that the parties have considered and understood the terms of any settlement, and should, if appropriate, advise the parties to seek legal or other specialized advice. 

Informed consent

If the mediator perceives that a party is unable to give informed consent to participation in the process or to the terms of settlement due to, for example, the impact of a physical or mental impairment, the process should not continue until the mediator is satisfied that such informed consent has been obtained from the party or the party’s duly authorized representative. 

Voluntary agreement

The right of the parties to reach a voluntary agreement is central to the mediation process. Consequently, a mediator should act and conduct the process in ways that maximize its voluntariness. 

Expectations of the parties

A mediator should have sufficient knowledge of relevant procedural and substantive issues to be effective. It is the mediator’s responsibility to prepare before the mediation session by reviewing any statements or documents submitted by the parties. A mediator should refuse to serve or withdraw from the mediation if the mediator becomes physically or mentally unable to meet the reasonable expectations of the parties. 


It is crucial that the mediator and all parties have a clear understanding as to confidentiality before the mediation begins. Before a mediation session begins, a mediator should explain to all parties (a) any applicable laws, rules or agreements prohibiting disclosure in subsequent legal proceedings of offers and statements made and documents produced during the session, and (b) the mediator’s role in maintaining confidences within the mediation and as to third parties. 

A mediator should not disclose confidential information without permission of all parties or unless required by law, court rule or other legal authority. A mediator must not use confidential information acquired during the mediation to gain personal advantage or advantage for others, or to affect adversely the interests of others.


A mediator should remain impartial throughout the course of the mediation. A mediator should be aware of and avoid the potential for bias based on the parties’ backgrounds, personal attributes, or conduct during the session, or based on any pre-existing knowledge of or opinion about the merits of the dispute being mediated. A mediator should endeavor to provide a procedurally fair process in which each party is given an adequate opportunity to participate. If a mediator becomes incapable of maintaining impartiality, the mediator should withdraw promptly. 

A mediator should disclose any information that reasonably could lead a party to question the mediator’s impartiality. A mediator may proceed with the process unless a party objects to continuing service. A mediator should withdraw if a conflict of interest exists that casts serious doubt on the integrity of the process. 

The integrity of the mediation process

After a mediation is completed, a mediator should refrain from any conduct involving a party, insurer or counsel to the mediation that reasonably would cast doubt on the integrity of the mediation process, absent disclosure to and consent by all parties to the mediation. This does not preclude the mediator from serving as a mediator or in another dispute resolution capacity with a party, insurer or counsel involved in the prior mediation. 

Accepting items of value

A mediator should exercise caution in accepting items of value, including gifts or payments for meals, from a party, insurer or counsel to a mediation during or after a mediation, particularly if the items are accepted at such a time and in such a manner as to cast doubt on the integrity of the mediation process. 

Conflicts of interest

A mediator should also avoid conflicts of interest in recommending the services of other professionals. If a mediator is unable to make a personal recommendation without creating a potential or actual conflict of interest, the mediator should so advise the parties and refer them to a professional referral service or association. 

Providing legal advice

A mediator should ensure that the parties understand that the mediator’s role is that of neutral intermediary, not that of representative of or advocate for any party. A mediator should not offer legal advice to a party. If a mediator offers an evaluation of a party’s position or of the likely outcome in court or arbitration, or offers a recommendation with regard to settlement, the mediator should ensure that the parties understand that the mediator is not acting as an attorney for any party and is not providing legal advice.